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Replicates following removal of recombinant sequence fragments by a blinded fully exploratory screen for recombination using RDP3. Black squares at the end of the branches represent the gag and nef sequences sampled from Cameroon in this study, while red squares represent intragene recombinant fragments in our samples. The gag tree was rooted using HIV-1 group N, O, P and SIV CPZ isolates, while t
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Kh R, Awazi B, Hewlett I: Increased genetic diversity and intersubtype recombinants of HIV-1 in blood donors from urban Cameroon. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2007, 45:361?63. 6. Ndembi N, Abraha A, Pilch H, Ichimura H, Mbanya D, Kaptue L, Salata R, Arts EJ: Molecular characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 in Yaounde, Cameroon: evidence of major drug resistance mu
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Nowledgements The authors are grateful to Andile Nofemela and Roman Ntale for technical assistance with viral sequencing. This research was supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (technical co-operation project RAF/6/ 029), Poliomyelitis Research Foundation (PRF) of South Africa and the University of Cape Town, for collaborative projects with partners in the global South. We thank Ger
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Es represent the gag sequences sampled from Cameroon in this study, while red squares represent intragene recombinant fragments in our samples. The blue squares show the new divergent branches formed by viruses sampled in this study. Sequence C.ZM.2006.ZM1464F appears to have been mis-labelled in the LANL database, and consistently groups with subtype A1. Additional file 2: Detailed phylogenetic a
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Les 1, 2). The sequences clustered with different clades and circulating recombinant forms distributed throughout the phylogenetic trees (Table 2), consistent with the breadth of HIV-1 diversity previously described in Cameroon. CRF02_AG-like viruses dominated the clade distribution, infecting 50 of the 46 participants for which both genes were sequenced (Figure 2). Participants infected with vir
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Tion and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript.Tongo et al. Virology Journal 2013, 10:29 http://www.virologyj.com/content/10/1/Page 7 of17. Montavon C, Vergne L, Bourgeois A, Mpoudi-Ngole E, Malonga-Mouellet G, Butel C, Toure-Kane C, Delaporte E, Peeters M: Identification of a new circulating recombinant form of HIV type 1, CRF11-cpx, involving subtypes A, G, J, and CRF01-
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S clustered within the CRF02_AG clade, reinforcing the notion that this viral clade is a major contributor of genetic material to new recombinants [20]; an alternative explanation, however, could be that the gag and nef genes were amplified from different viruses co-infecting the same patients. Ongoing molecular and clinical surveillance will reveal whether new recombinants will begin to circulate
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D increases permeability of small blood vessels and smooth muscle contraction. In macrophages, eosinophiles, and neutrophils anaphylatoxins can induce oxidative burst, basophiles, and mast cells release histamine, and C3a can enhance the effect of other proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF, IL-6, and SDF-1. While the mechanism for the many reactions precipitated by complement anaphylatoxins has n

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