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F known clades. Although the majority of the outlier viruses found in our study were also URFs, they remained outliers after the removal of recombinant segments. It thus appears that these sequences represent viruses that are genuinely highly divergent and are possibly extant descendants of previously unknown early divergingTable 3 Inter and intraclade recombinantsSample ID BS02 BS09 BS11 BS13 BS2
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S clustered within the CRF02_AG clade, reinforcing the notion that this viral clade is a major contributor of genetic material to new recombinants [20]; an alternative explanation, however, could be that the gag and nef genes were amplified from different viruses co-infecting the same patients. Ongoing molecular and clinical surveillance will reveal whether new recombinants will begin to circulate
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Cpx (4 each), and clades A, F, CRF01_AE and CRF36_cpx (2 each). In addition, 22 of the studied viruses apparently had nef and gag genes from viruses belonging to different clades, with the majority (8/10) having either a nef or gag gene derived from CRF02_AG. Interestingly, five gag sequences (10 ) and three (5 ) nef sequences were neither obviously recombinant nor easily classifiable into any
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Om neutrophils, eosinophiles, and basophiles. C3a and C5a act on specific receptors to produce local inflammatory responses and when secreted in concentrations high enough to invoke a general systemic response, they cause circulatory collapse similar to an IgE mediated allergic response. ATs modulate the secretion of IL-6, and TNF from B cells and serve as potent chemoattractants[52]. C5a also wor
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Replicates following removal of recombinant sequence fragments by a blinded fully exploratory screen for recombination using RDP3. Black squares at the end of the branches represent the gag and nef sequences sampled from Cameroon in this study, while red squares represent intragene recombinant fragments in our samples. The gag tree was rooted using HIV-1 group N, O, P and SIV CPZ isolates, while t
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Issecting the earliest evolutionary steps in the emergence of HIV-1M. Keywords: HIV-1 diversity, West central Africa, RDP3, Maximum likelihood, PHYMLFindings The Congo basin in west central Africa is thought to be the origin of HIV, where several cross-species transmission events from chimpanzees to humans occurred [1,2]. Cameroon, located in this region, has one of the most genetically diverse HI
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One of the newly sequenced gag genes (BS72) was apparently derived through recombination between F2 and CRF36_cpx parental viruses, one of the nef genes was apparently derived through recombination between F and CRF22_01A1 parental viruses. The phylogenetic analysis of gag sequences derived from the Cameroonian samples further revealed four sequences (BS09, BS25, BS16 and BS42) situated on diverge
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Equences previously identified as belonging to these known clades by constructing maximum likelihood trees from all available gag and nef sequences for each clade, and selecting one sequence from each of the up to ten most basal lineages from the root of these clades. Anonymously-donated HIV-infected blood units were collected between December 2006 and August 2007 from Yaound?Central Hospital, Cam

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